Publications

Physical Unclonable Functions and Intellectual Property Protection Techniques

January 25, 2017

Ramesh Karri, Ozgur Sinanoglu and Jeyavijayan Rajendran

On one hand, traditionally, secure systems rely on hardware to store the keys for cryptographic protocols. Such an approach is becoming increasingly insecure, due to hardware-intrinsic vulnerabilities. A physical unclonable function (PUF) is a security primitive that exploits inherent hardware properties to generate keys on the fly, instead of storing them. On the other hand, the integrated circuit (IC) design flow is globalized due to increase in design, fabrication, testing, and verification costs.

Source camera attribution using stabilized video

January 19, 2017

Samet Taspinar, Manoranjan Mohanty, and Nasir Memon

Although PRNU (Photo Response Non-Uniformity)-based methods have been proposed to verify the source camera of a non-stabilized video, these methods may not be adequate for stabilized videos. The use of video stabilization has been increasing in recent years with the development of novel stabilization software and the availability of stabilization in smart-phone cameras. This paper presents a PRNU-based source camera attribution method for out-of-camera stabilized video (i.e., stabilization applied after the video is captured).

Scan Design: Basics, Advancements, and Vulnerabilities

January 14, 2017

Samah Mohamed Saeed, Sk Subidh Ali, and Ozgur Sinanoglu

The increasing design complexity of modern Integrated Chips (IC) has reflected into exacerbated challenges in manufacturing testing. In this respect, scan is the most widely used design for testability (DfT) technique that overcomes the manufacturing test challenges by enhancing the access and thus, testability. However, scan can also open a back door to an attacker when implemented in security critical chips.

Repeatable Reverse Engineering with the Platform for Architecture-Neutral Dynamic Analysis

January 6, 2017

Ryan J. Whelan, Timothy R. Leek, Joshua E. Hodosh, Patrick A. Hulin, and Brendan Dolan-Gavitt

Many problems brought on by faulty or malicious software code can be diagnosed through a reverse engineering technique known as dynamic analysis, in which analysts study software as it executes. Researchers at Lincoln Laboratory developed the Platform for Architecture-Neutral Dynamic Analysis to facilitate analyses that lead to profound insight into how software behaves.

Stressing Out: Bitcoin “Stress Testing”

December 19, 2016

Khaled Baqer, Danny Yuxing Huang, Damon McCoy, and Nicholas Weaver

In this paper, we present an empirical study of a recent spam campaign (a “stress test”) that resulted in a DoS attack on Bitcoin. The goal of our investigation being to understand the methods spammers used and impact on Bitcoin users.

FACID: A trust-based collaborative decision framework for intrusion detection networks

December 15, 2016

Carol J. Fung and Quanyan Zhu

Computer systems evolve to be more complex and vulnerable. Cyber attacks have also grown to be more sophisticated and harder to detect. Intrusion detection is the process of monitoring and identifying unauthorized system access or manipulation. It becomes increasingly difficult for a single intrusion detection system (IDS) to detect all attacks due to limited knowledge about attacks. Collaboration among intrusion detection devices can be used to gain higher detection accuracy and cost efficiency as compared to its traditional single host-based counterpart.

Proposed NY Cybersecurity Regulation: A Giant Leap Backward?

December 2, 2016

Forbes-CCS

Judith Germano

Mid-November marked the end of the comment period for New York’s “first in nation” proposed cybersecurity legislation for financial institutions. As the hot topic of the day, many regulators and government officials have felt compelled to take a stand on cybersecurity. It seems counterintuitive to set out to protect constituents by inaction. But the wrong type of action, including through inflexible and far-reaching state required mandates, only adds to the growing clamor of distractions about how companies should best secure their systems.

Guest Editorial: Special Issue on Secure and Trustworthy Computing

December 1, 2016

Ozgur Sinanoglu and Ramesh Karri

There is a growing concern regarding the trustworthiness and reliability of the hardware underlying all information systems on which modern society is reliant. Trustworthy and reliable semiconductor supply chain, hardware components, and platforms are essential to all critical infrastructures including financial, healthcare, transportation, and energy.

FPGA Trust Zone: Incorporating trust and reliability into FPGA designs

November 24, 2016

Vinayaka Jyothi, Manasa Thoonoli, Richard Stern and Ramesh Karri

This paper proposes a novel methodology FPGA Trust Zone (FTZ) to incorporate security into the design cycle to detect and isolate anomalies such as Hardware Trojans in the FPGA fabric. Anomalies are identified using violation to spatial correlation of process variation in FPGA fabric.

FPGA Trust Zone: Incorporating trust and reliability into FPGA designs

November 24, 2016

Vinayaka Jyothi, Manasa Thoonoli, Richard Stern, and Ramesh Karri

This paper proposes a novel methodology FPGA Trust Zone (FTZ) to incorporate security into the design cycle to detect and isolate anomalies such as Hardware Trojans in the FPGA fabric. Anomalies are identified using violation to spatial correlation of process variation in FPGA fabric. Anomalies are isolated using Xilinx Isolation Design Flow (IDF) methodology. FTZ helps identify and partition the FPGA into areas that are devoid of anomalies and thus, assists to run designs securely and reliably even in an anomaly-infected FPGA. FTZ also assists IDF to select trustworthy areas for implementing isolated designs and trusted routes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of FTZ for AES and RC5 designs on Xilinx Virtex-7 and Atrix-7 FPGAs.

Hardware Trojans: Lessons Learned after One Decade of Research

November 23, 2016

Kan Xiao, Domenic Forte, Yier Jin, Ramesh Karri, Swarup Bhunia, and Mark Mohammad Tehranipoor 

Given the increasing complexity of modern electronics and the cost of fabrication, entities from around the globe have become more heavily involved in all phases of the electronics supply chain. In this environment, hardware Trojans (i.e., malicious modifications or inclusions made by untrusted third parties) pose major security concerns, especially for those integrated circuits (ICs) and systems used in critical applications and cyber infrastructure.

Securing digital microfluidic biochips by randomizing checkpoints

November 17, 2016

Jack Tang, Ramesh Karri, Mohamed Ibrahim, and Krishnendu Chakrabarty

Much progress has been made in digital microfluidic biochips (DMFB), with a great body of literature addressing low-cost, high-performance, and reliable operation. Despite this progress, security of DMFBs has not been adequately addressed. We present an analysis of a DMFB system prone to malicious modification of routes and propose a DMFB defense based on spatio-temporal randomized checkpoints using CCD cameras.

You Can Yak but You Can’t Hide: Localizing Anonymous Social Network Users

November 16, 2016

Minhui Xue, Cameron Ballard, Kelvin Liu, Carson Nemelka, Yanqiu Wu, Keith Ross, and Haifeng Qian

The recent growth of anonymous social network services — such as 4chan, Whisper, and Yik Yak — has brought online anonymity into the spotlight. For these services to function properly, the integrity of user anonymity must be preserved. If an attacker can determine the physical location from where an anonymous message was sent, then the attacker can potentially use side information (for example, knowledge of who lives at the location) to de-anonymize the sender of the message.

What Is Cyber Collateral Damage? And Why Does It Matter?

November 15, 2016

Lawfare-CCS

Zachary K. Goldman and Sasha Romanosky

What happens when the consequences of a cyberattack are not physical? What happens when a digital missile destroys or corrupts data in a manner that is not intended by the person launching a lawful cyberattack? Current legal and policy frameworks for assessing collateral damage do not squarely address the matter (or at least they do not do so publicly)—and that needs to change.

You Can Yak but You Can’t Hide: Localizing Anonymous Social Network Users

November 14, 2016

Minhui Xue, Cameron Ballard, Kelvin Liu, Carson Nemelka,  Yanqiu Wu, Keith Ross, and Haifeng Qian

The recent growth of anonymous social network services – such as 4chan, Whisper, and Yik Yak – has brought online anonymity into the spotlight. For these services to function properly, the integrity of user anonymity must be preserved. If an attacker can determine the physical location from where an anonymous message was sent, then the attacker can potentially use side information (for example, knowledge of who lives at the location) to de-anonymize the sender of the message.

Security engineering of nanostructures and nanomaterials

November 10, 2016

Davood Shahrjerdi, B. Nasri, D. Armstrong, A. Alharbi, and Ramesh Karri

Proliferation of electronics and their increasing connectivity pose formidable challenges for information security. At the most fundamental level, nanostructures and nanomaterials offer an unprecedented opportunity to introduce new approaches to securing electronic devices. First, we discuss engineering nanomaterials, (e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)) to make unclonable cryptographic primitives.

Security engineering of nanostructures and nanomaterials

November 7, 2016

Davood Shahrjerdi, Bayan Nasri, Darren Armstrong, Abduallah Alharbi, Ramesh Karri

Proliferation of electronics and their increasing connectivity pose formidable challenges for information security. At the most fundamental level, nanostructures and nanomaterials offer an unprecedented opportunity to introduce new approaches to securing electronic devices. First, we discuss engineering nanomaterials, (e.g., carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene, and layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs)) to make unclonable cryptographic primitives.

CamoPerturb: secure IC camouflaging for minterm protection

November 7, 2016

Muhammad YasinBodhisatwa Mazumdar, Ozgur Sinanoglu, and Jeyavijayan Rajendran

This paper presents CamoPerturb, a countermeasure to thwart the decamouflaging attack by integrating logic perturbation with IC camouflaging. CamoPerturb, contrary to all the existing camouflaging schemes, perturbs the functionality of the given design minimally, i.e., adds/removes one minterm, rather than camouflaging the design.